The precipitation of ash from a volcanic eruption(noun)
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Use "ashfall" in a sentence
"Another negative factor that may affect not only Iceland is the so-called ashfall that may cover expansive territories."
"Up here in the hills of the Acadien Orogeny (geology talk) I like to think My little farm might be too far east to lay under significant ashfall (yes, I am the Pollyanna Pessimist and I actualy think about such things, but I grew up a mormon so you might understand ...)."
"FEMA/USGS, 1999, Volcanic ashfall: How to be prepared for an ashfall."